Exile in the Middle Ages
A Voice in the Wilderness: Saints, Prisoners, and Exiles in William of Paris’s Life of St. Christina–By Katherine Frances
Examining William Paris’s Life of St. Christina of Bolsena, written during his exile with the earl of Warick in the fourteenth century, this paper considers the multifaceted nature of exile. The paper contends that Paris used a hagiographical text to both exculpate his master from the crime for which he had been condemned, and to repudiate Richard II, the man who enforced this exile.
The Wife’s Lament is considered one of the most enigmatic Old English poems. This article sees the doubling and ambiguity of the close of the poem as artistically necessary, rather than as a problem that needs to be settled, which was the approach of previous generations of scholars. By analyzing the echoes, repetitions and changes in the poem’s language and imagery in close textual and grammatical detail, this article demonstrates that the complexity of construction in The Wife’s Lament perfectly undergirds its exploration of the duality of abandonment and companionship at the heart of both real and more figurative exile.